Female brain ages less than male brain

The aging of the human brain varies greatly from subject to subject: some individuals experience rapid cognitive decline, while others maintain their cognitive abilities intact even in old age. According

Panic attacks and addictions

Sometimes disorders such as panic attack can also occur in the presence of other issues such as those related to the use of addictive substances, such as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and even more so amphetamines, drugs, or drugs such as cannabis or cocaine.

OSAS – Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

From the English Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome or. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. . This is a condition related to repetitive partial or complete obstruction of the first airway at the

Schizophrenic illness between myth and reality

Experts are not sure why, but many people confuse schizophrenia with dissociative personality disorder, which is when someone has two or more identities or personalities. Schizophrenia may cause hallucinations or

Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia

DEMENCY is an organically based disturbance of previously acquired intellectual functions: memory (short- and long-term), critical and judgment skills, language, and spatio-temporal orientation. Today, nearly 50 million people worldwide have

Transient ischemic attacks


Transient ischemic attack, or transient ischemia, (TIA) is defined as an episode of neurological deficit caused by focal cerebral ischemia with complete recovery within 24 hours. On average, the duration of a TIA is about 10 minutes.

The cause of TIAs is usually atherothrombotic in nature and is due, in particular, to the presence of platelet microemboli or fibrin-platelet material from atheromasic plaques. This material can temporarily interrupt blood flow within an artery. The resumption of blood circulation and, consequently, the disappearance of the neurological deficit may be due to the Rapid dissolution of emboli. It is also possible that functional recovery is due to the rapid establishment of a
anastomotic compensation circle.

In the case of TIA affecting the
vertebro-basilar system
mechanisms may be invoked hemodynamic type such as abrupt head movements, which in subjects with cervical spondylarthrosis result in a momentary reduction in cerebral blood flow by compression on the vertebral arteries.

The numbers

The annual incidence of TIAs is around
120 cases per 100,000 population
, but hard data do not exist because such manifestations are not often reported to the physician or do not always prompt the subject to go to the
emergency room
. Episodes of TIA may instead be reported to the physician during the course of the medical history after cerebral ischemia. The TIA is in fact a risk factor important short-term risk factor for ischemic stroke. The possibility of an ischemic stroke after a TIA is estimated to be approximately between 3-10% after two days, around 5% after 7 days and between 9 and 17% after 3 months.

Also in the case of TIAs, symptomatology is related to the arterial district affected and can be distinguished, depending on whether the
carotid territory
or the


Major complaints include loss of strength in a limb or a right or left hemilateral, difficulty speaking (aphasia, dysarthria), dizziness, drop-attack (sudden fall to the ground due to failure of the lower limbs with preservation of consciousness), short-term memory impairment (Transient global amnesia).

It is necessary to be
great care
in advancing the
suspicion of TIA
, because the symptomatology reported by the patient could be confused with other conditions such as syncopal episodes, seizures partial, migraine with hemiplegia

I would like to emphasize again that TIA is a
neurological deficit without loss of consciousness:
therefore the affected person remembers the episode very well and is able to report it in great detail, as opposed to during epileptic seizure.

On the other hand, one cannot confuse a TIA with a cerebral stroke, even of modest magnitude, because in the case of a stroke the neurological deficits are of more than 24 hours’ duration: moreover, an ischemic brain lesion can be evidenced on CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) brain.


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