Recurrences in the dislocated shoulder

Dislocation of the shoulder, as a traumatic event that causes a bone to protrude from its joint structure, is certainly reducible with a medical maneuver that restores the injured part, but from that point on, subsequent treatment must be followed that will then determine whether or not the shoulder heals and resumes its function.

Neurodevelopmental disorders and autism

As we know, neurodevelopmental disorders are increasing dramatically, and we find ourselves every day, both as professionals in the field and as people, considering all the clinical and human implications.

The different ages of pregnancy

What is the best age to get pregnant, the best time? Women, who have become mothers, will surely have different views, and different experiences are important to understand a little more about the complex world of pregnancy and its complex aspects.

Can bipolar disorder be prevented?

Prevention with this disorder is not comparable to what is required for other clinical conditions, as it is a disorder of the mind that affects the mood sphere, but intervening in a timely manner at the first signs of mental illness is a definite advantage with respect to the future condition of the sick person, thus preventing the worsening of the illness.

Humans and animals, close but with caution

While it is now well established that pets, especially dogs and cats do not generally pose a real risk of infection, it still pays to be vigilant that they themselves are not attacked by parasites or ticks.

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa was included in DSM 5 (2013) in the broader diagnostic category called Nutrition and Eating Disorders. The main characteristic of this disorder is food refusal. The term anorexia (literally

Sexual desire in the various ages of life

It may seem easy to define it, but despite the many studies conducted, the composition of the structure of sexual desire, what elements make it up and to what extent they may influence it, is still unclear.

Symptoms of depression

-Hard to concentrate and remember details or particulars . Difficulty in making decisions -Sense of fatigue and precariousness. -Feelings of guilt, worthlessness and helplessness -Humor oriented pessimism and sense of

The brains of abandoned children

Alterations in key nerve circuits, but with family foster care, recovery is possible

A research team from Harvard Medical School‘s Boston Children’s Hospital has documented, in JAMA Pediatrics, the alterations that occur in the brain circuits of children who lived in orphanages in Bucharest. The study, which began in 2001, is part of a project, called the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, involving the 6 orphanages in the Romanian capital, three U.S. Universities led by Harvard, three Foundations, led by the Mac Arthur Foundation of Chicago, whose goal is to examine the effects of childhood institutionalization on brain and behavioral development and, at the same time, to test whether family foster care has the ability to recover from brain damage.

The characteristics of the study are very unique. 136 children around two years of age, who had been in an orphanage since birth or at least for a few months after birth, were randomly divided (randomized) into two groups, one sent to foster care and the other who remained in the orphanage. A choice that instantly puzzles, but it should be known that, prior to this project, there was no adoption program in Bucharest, which therefore begins with the activity of the U.S. group, which covers the costs of fostering and the training of social workers who will be responsible for providing ongoing support to foster families. Finally, the study included a control group consisting of Bucharest children of the same age living with their families. All children were observed for about 8 years at regular intervals, monitoring their intellectual and behavioral development until then ages 9 to 11. Finally, a sample from each of the three groups was selected to be subjected to a meticulous and extensive brain investigation carried out using the Diffusion Tensor technique. This technique, abbreviated DTI (tensor diffusion imaging), allows visualization of the bundles of white matter fibers that connect brain areas to each other.

Children in orphanages showed alterations in white matter microstructure in a number of circuits and namely: the central part (so-called body) of the corpus callosum, cingulum, corona radiata, fornix, external capsule, retro-lenticular area of the internal capsule, and medial lemniscus. Brain images of all these brain circuits of institutionalized children, with the only exception of the retro-lenticular area of the internal capsule, show linkage deficits, which also explain the behavioral, cognitive and emotion management disorders that, with greater frequency, are present in these abandoned children. Intriguing is the exception of the retro-lenticular area of the inner capsule, which, instead of ‘weakening, is shown to be thickened and thus more functional. This area is part of the visual system and is the sensory area studied along with the medial lemniscus, which is a nerve pathway that transports sensation from the body to the brain, which, on the other hand, is deficient like all other circuits. One would think that in institutionalized orphans there would be greater visual acuity, as a need to be alert at all times, and poor tactile sensitivity, a dulling of the senses from lack of caresses and more generally from poor human contact .

Children in foster care, on the other hand, show brain images quite similar to children living with families, although some alterations in the white matter are still visible in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. This study is of great importance not because it is the first. Most recently, work by RJ Davidson’s group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in Biological Psychiatry on Feb. 15, documents, in children who have been abandoned or subjected to physical abuse or economic misery, structural alterations on key gray matter areas such as the amygdala and hippocampus. The importance of the Harvard study lies in the fact that it is a randomized controlled, prospective design with within it the demonstration that family foster care is not only an ethical obligation to these “innocents” (after whom the famous orphanage in Florence was named), but it is also an effective health intervention, which even in our country, which has abolished orphanages since 2006, it would be appropriate to extend without delay. There are about 15,000 minors in foster homes, which are certainly not orphanages but are obviously not families either, with an estimated economic cost of more than 40,000 euros per year per child. This money could be better spent.

by Francesco Bottaccioli


  • Profile picture of Dott.ssa Emanuela Costantino
    active 4 years, 1 month ago

    • Via Gallinara 2/B - Cagliari
  • Profile picture of Dott. Cristiano Crisafulli
    active 4 years, 1 month ago

    Diabetologist, Basic Doctors, Internist

    • Via Vittorio Emanuele II 181 - Acireale
  • Profile picture of Dr. Domenico D'Angelo
    active 4 years, 1 month ago

    Otolaryngologists, Basic Doctors, Competent Doctor

    • Via Pola 5 - San Prisco
  • Profile picture of Dott.ssa OLGA PETROVSKAIA
    active 4 years, 1 month ago

    Pain therapists, Basic Doctors, Therapist

    • Via Giulio Romano 3 - Valle Martella
  • Profile picture of Dott. Sandro Morganti
    active 4 years, 1 month ago

    Orthopedists, Basic Doctors, Osteopaths

    • Via Foligno 6 - Roma



Bruxism is a condition in which you grind your teeth: it can happen, unconsciously, in a waking state or, more often, during sleep. People who clench or grind their teeth

Spinal canal stenosis

Spinal canal stenosis consists of the narrowing of a section of the canal present along the entire spine (formed by the aligned succession of small holes in the center of

Hemorrhagic stroke

According to the official definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), stroke corresponds to a “sudden onset of signs and/or symptoms referable to local and/or global deficits in brain function,

Obstructive sleep apnea

Repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction may occur during sleep, often accompanied by reduced oxygen saturation. Such episodes are accompanied in almost all cases by snoring. Apneas often end with

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can occur at any age in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event that has made them feel life-threatening

Head trauma

A head injury, also called “concussion” in medical terms, consists of the violent collision of the head against a hard surface or, conversely, of a blunt object against the cranial


Headache, the so-called “headache,” is probably the most common form of pain. It is chronic or recurrent pain affecting various structures of the head, such as arterial and venous vessels,

Major depression

Major depression (or “major depressive disorder,” as stated in the “Statistical Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM 5”), is a mood disorder that is characterized by the presence of

Shock, medical emergency

It may happen that the circulation of blood through the body undergoes a sudden change giving rise to a condition of physiological shock, with decreased flow and crisis on the


Alcoholism is a real disease because of the way it presents itself, the disorders it causes, and the symptoms it gives the patient. The term Alcoholism is used when disorders

your advertising
exclusively ON

complete the form and you will be contacted by one of our managers