Anuria – Oliguria

Anuria is the failure of the kidney to produce urine. Oliguria, on the other hand, is the production of an insufficient amount of urine to maintain homeostasis. Causes may be

What is epiglottitis?

Epiglottitis is an acute infection, most common from 3 to 6 years of age. Symptoms exhibited during the onset of epiglottitis are fever, septic status, forced posture, dysphagia, hoarse voice,

The baby who cries and wails

The child who always complains and cries very often does not fall into a category that can be attributed to a specific etiology but rather falls into a number of different causes that need to be identified.

What is hematemesis?

Hematemesis is the oral emission of blood with vomiting. Symptomatology and objective signs depend on etiology. In the case of massive hemorrhage, symptomatology and objectivity in hypovolemic shock will be

Cardiorespiratory arrest

In pediatric age, respiratory arrest often precedes cardiacarrest. The causes may be different: respiratory, cardiological, neurological, from shock, from drugs, from metabolic imbalances, or from environmental causes. The signs are:

Children and boredom

Our lives (and those of our children) seem to respond to a kind of categorical imperative“no boredom.” We are constantly seeking new stimulation and our lifestyle has outlawed downtime and

How to treat encephalitis

Encephalitis is an inflammatory process of the central nervous system in which the major area is the brain parenchyma. If spinal, sensory, and motor roots are also involved, the term

Zika, prenatal blood test may intercept unborn child’s defects


Two years ago, the Zika epidemic had terrified pregnant women residing in regions endemic to the virus, such as Brazil and even parts of the United States. Their fear was justified by the link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and the risk of some serious birth defects in the unborn child, particularly the condition known as microcephaly, in which there is incomplete skull development, mostly accompanied by mental failure.

The absence of early prenatal diagnosis or treatment has led to enormous concerns and numerous pregnancy terminations. Fetal MRI captures high-resolution snapshots of the fetus, but this imaging technique can be used only in the second or third trimester, when terminating a pregnancy is more complex.

At University of Southern California, a team of researchers is studying the mechanisms behind the devastating consequences of Zika with the goal of developing new prenatal diagnostic tests that can determine whether babies will be born healthy and now, as can be read in their study published in JCI INsight, have taken a significant step forward.

“Our results,” the authors write in The Conversation. – revealed an elevated production of 16 specific protein biomarkers found in the blood of pregnant women who gave birth to children with developmental delays and ocular abnormalities. These biomarkers are potentially useful for predicting Zika pregnancy outcomes simply by using blood samples from the mother-to-be at any stage of pregnancy.”

The number of Zika cases has decreased dramatically following the decline of major outbreaks in 2016, yet many children are still suffering from the terrible consequences of prenatal infection. And the risk of new outbreaks is by no means averted, as the Zika virus has not been eradicated and Aedes mosquitoes-which are its transmission vector-are still widely spread.

Source: Foo SS et al. Biomarkers and immunoprofiles associated with fetal abnormalities of ZIKV-positive pregnancies. JCI Insight. 2018 Nov 2;3(21).


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