The electric shock

When electrical energy, by mistake or accident, reaches the body by traveling through it in several parts, electric shock occurs.

The itching of the ear

The ear can also be the source of an itching disorder , so much so that it forces us to unadvisable and rudimentary scratching to find a modicum of relief, a


Constipation (i.e., constipation) is an alteration of the alvus characterized by frequent, difficult and apparently incomplete emission of stools of increased consistency.

Organophosphorus insecticides

The control of insects and similar animals with organophosphorus insecticides is practiced on a large scale. If handled with the due precautions these are not risky for humans. The prototypes

Hepatitis E: liver disease

Hepatitis E is caused by an RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes symptoms typical of viral hepatitis, including poor appetite, malaise, and jaundice. Fulminant hepatitis and death

Can we tell if we are getting sick by reading DNA?

Analyzing DNA for genetic traces associated with the risk of certain diseases. For some it is a good way to prevent the onset of disease, but the scientific community views the practice with skepticism.
In the United Kingdom.Matthew Hancock is the U.K. secretary of state for health. In recent days, he announced during a speech to the Royal Society, of having a high risk of developing a prostate cancer. By age 70, the probability of contracting this type of cancer would be 15%.At least according to the dna tests to which he underwent to measure the risk associated with 16 different conditions.

Decrease the risks

However, these types of DNA tests have limitations. First, they havelimited accuracy, produce results that do not change clinical and therapeutic attitudes, and

The test

The test Hancock underwent was performed by Genomics Plc. This is a so-called polygenic risk test, in which a large number of variants, found in the genome, are analyzed to develop an estimate of the risk of contracting a particular disease, with the idea that each may contribute a small part. In themselves, these types of analyses are very useful on studies of large cohorts of patients because they allow us to

The results on the individual case

At the level of the individual, however, these tests are of more limited value, Not only are they not comprehensive, but In conclusion, the clinical relevance to date of these tests remains doubtful.

To know from DNA analysis if and what we can get sick from?

Certainly predicting and controlling the future has always been one of the dreams of human beings. The discovery and studies of DNA seem to represent a kind of realization of this dream: that is, to be able to know in advance what we will fall ill with and consequently have the ability to take the necessary steps to avert this eventuality.

But is this really the case?

Scientists are very cautious about this.

For example, the polygenic risk test, by which many genome variants are analyzed to then make an estimate of the risk of contracting a specific disease, may have value but only on large numbers of patients.

Indeed, this would make it possible to identify variants linked to a given condition and thus possible metabolic pathways involved in order to prepare new drugs.

On the individual case the value of the test is limited, the clinical relevance is doubtful.

In fact, these tests involve multifactorial diseases, in which both environment and lifestyle play an important role.

As Leonardo Salvati, Director of the Graduate School of Medical Genetics at the University of Padua, points out in Wired, “These tests analyze only a part of the genetic component associated with a given condition, that is, only a tot of polymorphisms,” without taking into account individual genetic variants and their interactions.


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Mitral valve repair

Repair of an insufficient/deteriorated mitral valve can be done: Removing the malfunctioning segments of the valve leaflets; implanting “synthetic cords” (which replace the broken or “stretched” natural ones of the

Overweight and obesity

Far from being a mere cosmetic problem, overweight and obesity are an established risk factor for the development of number of metabolic (foremost among them diabetes), acute cardiovascular (such as

Deep brain stimulation

The deep brain stimulation (Deep Brain Stimulation, DBS) is a neurosurgical method involving the implantation in the brain of electrodes which, appropriately positioned and activated by a pulse generator inserted

Morton’s neuroma

Morton’s neuroma consists of a thickening of the tissue surrounding a nerve tract present in the sole of the foot at the anterior (forefoot) support area, usually at the base


Labyrinthitis refers to an inflammation of the inner ear structure called the labyrinth. Sometimes the term labyrinthitis refers to other inner ear problems that are not referable to inflammation but

Aortic aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm refers to permanent dilatation of a well-defined segment of the aorta, the largest artery in the body that receives blood directly from the left ventricle and distributes


Heartburn is nothing more than the common “heartburn,” which sometimes may occur occasionally but in other cases tends to recur until it becomes chronic, with periods of remission alternating with


Warts are benign formations that can appear on the skin anywhere on the body as a result of infection by one of the viruses of the human papilloma family or


“M” for meningococcal meningitis. What is meant by meningitis? Although the term immediately evokes the meningococcal form, it should not be forgotten that “meningitis” means inflammation of the meninges, that

Cerebral aneurysm

A cerebral aneurysm is a vascular malformation that presents as a small spherical protrusion or bulge along the wall of an artery present in the brain. Its presence is risky

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