Heart failure: disorders of the heart

Heart failure refers to a dysfunction as a result of which the heart can no longer meet the needs of the body, causing reduced blood flow and accumulation (congestion) of

Mitral valve regurgitation

It is a condition in which the mitral valve leaflets do not close tightly, causing blood to leak backward into the left atrium of the heart.

Working professions in mitral valve disease

It is well known that risk factors for heart disease include habits such as excessive alcohol use, such as smoking, a high-protein and high-fat diet, and also genetic factors, while less consideration is often given to factors of occupational origin.

Application of Stents (Coronary Angioplasty)

A coronary stent is a medical "device," that is, an instrument used in Coronary Angioplasty to clear the way for possible blockages in the coronary arteries by following invasive techniques having the goal of restoring regular blood circulation within the heart by ensuring its proper function.

Why do I get cramps when I run?

A muscle cramp can come suddenly , such as during a run , and it does not announce itself with any kind of sign. At most you may realize it is coming very late , when already the muscle is contracting or overlapping.

Aortic valve repair

When aortic valvulopathy presents significant quality-of-life problems for the patient but also obvious risks of serious consequences, cardiac surgery may be necessary.

Diving, the basic rules

The human body, while moving through water, swimming or diving, knows that it poses a constant danger since it cannot survive under this element except with reserves of air. Never dive alone.

Hashimoto’s thyroid

When the immune system launches an attack on the thyroid gland, the small gland located under the Adam's apple, which produces hormones that regulate so many functions of the human body.


Coronarography, also called coronary angiography, is an invasive radiological technique used in cardiology to visualize the course and condition of the coronary arteries.


Cardiac Arrest causes immediate widespread ischemia in the body with cellular reactions within the various organs impairing their function and sometimes even thwarting resuscitation maneuvers for circulatory restoration.

Consequences of cardiac arrest are provoked cells and the appearance of edema. Which pose a significant risk to the brain due to the considerable reduction in cerebral circulation.

Signs of abnormalities in brain function can be observed in patients undergoing resuscitation, long after the event. With various symptoms affecting the nervous system.

Consequences of cardiac arrest are also the alteration of electrolyte balance, which then accounts for the formation of cellular edema, or even the onset of thrombotic phenomena at the microvascular level.








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Carotid stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis corresponds to a narrowing of the caliber of the carotid arteries, which are the main blood vessels supplying the brain with oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood (particularly glucose),

Heart failure (acute)

Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition that can result from the worsening of an already diagnosed chronic heart failure (heart failure) or represent its onset event.


1/10 – What is lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic pathological condition mainly manifested by swelling of a region of the body due to the accumulation of lymph in the tissues.

Shock, medical emergency

It may happen that the circulation of blood through the body undergoes a sudden change giving rise to a condition of physiological shock, with decreased flow and crisis on the

Ventricular hypertrophy

Ventricular hypertrophy is a condition characterized by thickening and a loss of elasticity of the walls of the left ventricle (i.e., the left lower chamber of the heart), which thus

Peripheral arteriopathy obliterans

Peripheral arteriopathy obliterans is a vascular disease that affects the arteries, especially those in the legs, preventing the muscles and tissues from receiving adequate blood supply, resulting in symptoms of


According to the ESH-ESC guidelines, hypertension is defined by the finding of systolic (maximum) blood pressure values ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic (minimum) blood pressure values ≤ 90 mmHg. The

Cardiac Echodoppler

The echocardiogram, also known as echocardiography, is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the use of ultrasound, which is quick and easy to perform, harmless, painless, and low-cost, and because

Aortic valvulopathy

When the aortic valve does not properly perform its function of pumping blood into the heart, an aortic disease condition occurs that also involves the left ventricle. Aortic valve disease

Diseases of the heart valves

Heart valve diseases comprise a large group of structural alterations and dysfunctions, congenital or more often acquired, that prevent the valves that separate the different chambers of the heart (atria

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