Are our toilet habits normal?

Does it often happen that you have to get up during the night to urinate? Is the “hesitant bladder” a real thing? And when should one seek medical attention?

Wasps, bees, hornets: avoiding complications

Wasp and other insect bites are common. Generally, most people recover quickly and without complications, but others, because they are allergic, can face serious complications. But caution and prevention can protect our vacations.

Cranberry: an aid against antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance continues to grow globally, and in Italy, the situation is among the most severe in Europe, with many fearsome bacteria now unassailable by most available antibiotics. According to

What is hemoperfusion?

This is a system in which blood is brought from the patient, by arterial cannulation, into an extracorporeal circuit. The blood, before returning to the body via the venous route,

New method for aortic valve replacement

New method to perform aortic valve replacement proves effective in high-risk patients. The findings may increase less invasive treatment options for patients with life-threatening heart disease. A new, less invasive

Kaposi’s disease: what is it?

Kaposi’s sarcoma is a rare type of cancer caused by a virus, called HHV8, belonging to the herpes virus family. It can affect both the skin and internal organs. Approximately

Hemolytic crisis: what is the treatment?

The causes of hemolysis can be different. A simple peripheral smear may indicate severe ongoing hemolysis. The most common symptoms are pallor and modest skin jaundice and treatment will have

Gas colic

Gas colic is defined as an acute, benign event that affects about 50% of infants (most often in the first 6 weeks of life).

Melanoma: everything you need to know about this disease

melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocytes, cells that contain the pigment, called melanin, responsible for skin coloration. It can develop in the skin all over the body, but in rare cases it can arise in the mucous membranes, such as the mouth, genitals, and ocular conjunctiva. The incidence of this cancer continues to rise. It is one of the most frequent cancers, with an incidence ranging from 55 per 100,000 population in Australia to 0.4 per 100,000 in Japan. In Italy the incidence is about 6-13 cases per 100,000 subjects.

It is one of the major cancers that arises at a young age and currently in Italy constitutes the third most frequent cancer in both sexes under the age of 49 as more than 50% of melanoma cases are diagnosed by the age of 60, in contrast to other cancers that mainly affect the elderly population. The most affected site is the trunk in men and the lower limbs in women.

The risk factors

Risk factors for melanoma are divided into personal and environmental. As for the former, it plays a moto important role the family history in fact even though inheritance depends on multiple genes, patients with family members with melanoma have an increased risk of developing melanoma, just as it has been reported that individuals with melanoma have a ninefold increased risk of developing a second melanoma. An additional personal risk factor has been described in individuals with phototypes I and II (light eyes and hair, very fair skin), with numerous freckles and frequent sunburn.

As for environmental risks, on the other hand, the most important risk factor is certainly cumulative sun exposure, as well as exposure to artificial UV rays (tanning lamps). Other factors are:

  • Intense and intermittent sun exposure
  • Previous sunburns
  • Exposure to artificial UV radiation, especially if aged <35 years old

Therapeutic strategies

Early stage melanoma is treated surgically. The dermatologist or surgeon will excise the suspicious lesion and, after histologic confirmation of melanoma, margin enlargement surgery will follow. The aim is to ensure a margin of healthy skin around the malignant lesion so as to reduce the risk of local recurrence.

In more advanced stages, however, the oncologist will take charge of the patient and discuss with him or her the treatment strategy to be adopted, most often chemotherapy, explaining any side effects. Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, that is, it acts on any cancer cells that may be present. Treatment involves the administration of one or more anticancer drugs. Intake is either oral or intravenous, which enters the bloodstream carrying it throughout the body. Chemotherapy can be given in an outpatient setting, at your primary care physician’s office, or at home. This of course depends on the patient’s health condition and prescribed therapy. Chemotherapy is usually chosen as therapy when the melanoma has metastasized.


  • Profile picture of Dott.ssa Emanuela Costantino
    active 3 years, 12 months ago

    • Via Gallinara 2/B - Cagliari
  • Profile picture of Dott. Flavio Della Croce
    active 3 years, 12 months ago

    Psychotherapists, Basic Doctors

    • Via Sacconi 1 - Borgonovo Val Tidone
  • Profile picture of Dr. Antonio Varriale
    active 3 years, 12 months ago

    Aesthetic Doctors, Dentists, Basic Doctors

    • Via Grotta dell Olmo 20 - Giugliano in Campania
  • Profile picture of Dr. Francesca Marceddu
    active 3 years, 12 months ago

    Anesthesiologists, Basic Doctors

    • Via del Risorgimento 49 - Pirri
  • Profile picture of Dott.ssa Anna Puccio
    active 3 years, 12 months ago

    Gynecologists, Basic Doctors

    • Via Vincenzo Ponsati 69 - Volvera



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Atopic dermatitis

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