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Types of poisoning: chlorates

Sodium and potassium chlorates are still used today to clean the soil of all vegetation. These substances in their dry state are strong oxidizing agents and present a high risk

Urgent endoscopy in pediatrics

Digestive endoscopy with fiberoptic instruments is also considered a routine technique in the pediatric age group. The examination often needs to be performed urgently, within 24 to 48 hours of

Foreign body (in the respiratory tract)

Children between 6 months and 3 years of age often get find themselves struggling with a foreign body in the respiratory tract. Symptoms are spasmodic coughing and sudden stridor in

Heavy metals and metalloids: iron

Metallic iron does not give toxicity problems, although there are people with congenital defects in matabolism, for whom it behaves like a poison. Iron salts are pharmaceuticals for the treatment

Exposure to chemicals

A corrosive substance can damage tissue within minutes, so it is very important to remove it quickly. What to do? First, immediately call for an ambulance. If the chemical remains

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What to do in case of lead poisoning?

piombo

Lead abounds in nature as it is distributed over the earth by reaching the environment for extraction from natural deposits. Lead enters metabolism and interferes with normal heme synthesis. It also acts on the nervous system, both centrally and peripherally. True lead poisoning can only occur with certain types of salts of the metal, so toxicity is not strictly related to the metal, but to the behavior of the ingested substance.

This type of poisoning can set in very insidiously with the appearance of symptoms when the lead content in the body becomes excessive. The main symptoms are abdominal pain, nerve palsy, metallic taste, and constipation. If lead has been ingested in the intestines an X-ray may show opacities.

Diagnosis and treatment

Lead poisoning can be recognized through the symptoms described above. Additional tests include assay of amino-levulinic acid dehydrase activity in erythrocytes. Acute poisoning requires supportive treatment to balance dehydration and electrolyte loss. Chronic poisoning, on the other hand, requires specific chelation-type therapy when symptoms are evident and blood levels are above 100 mL in adults and children.

Source: Vadecum of poisoning therapy by Roy Goulding

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