Status of epileptic illness

When we speak of seizure sickness we refer to recurrent compulsive seizures without restoration of consciousness before the onset of a new seizure. In children, it is necessary to ensure

Can bipolar disorder be prevented?

Prevention with this disorder is not comparable to what is required for other clinical conditions, as it is a disorder of the mind that affects the mood sphere, but intervening in a timely manner at the first signs of mental illness is a definite advantage with respect to the future condition of the sick person, thus preventing the worsening of the illness.

Meningitis in children

Meningitis is one of the neurological diseases most commonly acquired during childhood. It is the infection of the meninges due to the penetration of pathogens into the subarachnoid space and

Closed head trauma

In the case of closed head injury, loss of consciousness may not be immediate; in fact, several minutes may elapse between the time of injury and the appearance of neurological

Methods of poisoning: barbiturates

Today, compared with years past, barbiturate poisoning has greatly decreased, as they are no longer prescribable as before. Short- and medium-acting barbiturates are more toxic than long-acting ones. The mode

Metals and metalloids: thallium

Although thallium comes used in industry does not appear to create employment risks. The action of the thallium at the biochemical level is not yet known and all we can

Main types of poisoning: opiates

Opiates are considered opium, morphine, pethidine, diamorphine, methadone, pentazocine, and dextropropoxyphene. These are able to sedate pain and result in drug dependence. Their production and sale are under strict control

Irritants, corrosives and caustics

There are plenty of chemicals on the market with irritating, corrosive and caustic characteristics to living tissue. Accidents can occur in both adults and children, who do not know the

Muscle injuries

A muscle tear occurs when the muscle is forced beyond its range of motility. RICE procedures must be used. Cramps are spasms uncontrolled muscles, causing pain and loss of

Ivy, mushrooms and other poisonous plants


Ivy, oak and sumac plants cause an allergic reaction, and often resulting in a rash, in half of adults. A proportion of these individuals have a skin reaction, and only in 15-25% of cases is edema and eruption of blisters observed. Allergic people can come into contact with this plant through clothing, shoes, from contact with animal hair or through smoke from burning plants. There is no risk in touching the liquid contained in the vesicles. Symptoms include itching, erythema, edema, and blisters, depending on the form through which one is infected. Severity is certainly important, but so is the extent of the affected skin; in fact, the larger it is, the greater the need for medical treatment.

What to do?

  1. Those who know they are allergic and have come in contact with a poisonous plant should act immediately. Many victims do not realize the contact until many hours or even days later. The moment the itching and rash appears, use soap and water to clean the skin or apply alcohol. Rinse to remove solubilized material.
  2. For mild forms, 4 different methods can be used: tablets soaked in Burow’s solution, calamine or zinc oxide lotion, warm water mixed with two cups of colloidal vein flour, and baking soda paste.
  3. For mild-to-moderate forms, however, treat the skin as for the mild form. Apply cortisone ointment and for itching soak the affected area in warm water.
  4. For severe forms, use an oral corticosteroid or apply a corticosteroid ointment or cream and cover with a clear plastic sheet.


In Italy, among the most poisonous substances are mushrooms. They cause long incubation syndromes and short incubation syndromes.

What to do?

  1. In case of phalloid syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain appear after a period of 6 to 20 hours. Treatment consists of gastrolusion with vegetable charcoal. This involves antibiotic therapy with forced diuresis.
  2. In case of anticholinergic syndrome, the symptoms are dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Later, delirium, hallucinations, coma, and respiratory depression appear. Therapy consists of gastrolusion treatment with activated charcoal, sedation, and fluid therapy.
  3. Tearing, miosis, rhinorrhea, broncho-spasm, vomiting, hypotension, tremors and paresthesias appear 2 hours after ingestion in the case of cholinergic syndrome. Treat the syndrome with gastroluxis.

Source: Mediserve‘s Pocket Guide to First Aid.


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