2. Origin of plants on earth

Today's extant plant forms reflect a complex evolutionary "work" that has taken place over more than 400 million years, during which plants have deployed cunning strategies to be able to adapt to various types of environments, managing to survive and reproduce even in the most climatically severe places.

Water sports

We have now reached the height of summer. Temperatures are beginning to rise relentlessly and the heat is beginning to take its toll, especially on those who practice sports. Running,

Beware of sprained ankle

Unexpected forcing sprains the ankle as it goes to force its range of motion and can cause a lateral injury. What are the presenting symptoms? How to intervene?

9. Compensation

With this maneuver, the apneist returns the eardrums to a neutral position, which, due to the external pressure, which reduces the volumes of the air zones of our body, would tend to introflex to the point of injury or rupture if they were not rebalanced. Ambient pressure, which increases with depth, causes a reduction in the volume of the aerial parts of our body (lesson 3), compensating the ears reconstitute the original volumes, keeping the eardrum in a neutral position.

The support of the foot during running


Running is one of the most popular physical activities for several reasons. Primarily because it does not require any kind of special or even expensive equipment, the only thing you need, in fact, is a pair of running shoes. Second, running is an activity that does not require special study or skill (such as sports such as soccer, basketball, swimming, and skiing can be, for example) but can be easily practiced by all individuals except those with special health problems or specific physical characteristics.

Running burns a lot of calories, strengthens muscles and joints and basically is a great exercise for our whole body. However, there are cautions to be taken before engaging in this activity. First of all, in order to avoid injury and physical problems, special attention should be paid to foot support while running.

Watch out for movements

Before buying a pair of running shoes, it is necessary to evaluate some very important aspects. First and foremost is foot support during the running exercise. Being familiar with the way the foot rests on the ground during running is crucial both for choosing the right shoe to buy and for preventing injuries or accidents. It is also important to understand the characteristics of each runner. Evaluation of support can be done thoroughly by an orthopedic surgeon or at a good sporting goods retailer with equipment to check the movement of the foot.

Different types of support

Neutral stance occurs when the foot touches the ground first with the outside of the heel, then with the entire sole and finally with a final push of the forefoot. Instead, we speak of over-pronation when in the second phase of ground support the sole of the foot converges too far inward. Hyper-supination, on the other hand, is the condition in which in the second phase of the stance the sole of the foot remains too much on the outside.In most individuals, the supports are always neutral or hyper-pronatory.

Another aspect to analyze in foot support during running concerns the difference in longitudinal direction. About 90 percent of runners rest their heel first, while the rest rest rest their forefoot directly. In the latter case, the stance time is reduced, the stride frequency is increased and, due to better thrust, the stride width is also increased. Avoiding sinking the heel to the ground, on the other hand, reduces stress on the knees on the one hand but increases stress on the achilles tendon, ankle and calf.

Direct forefoot support is promoted by proponents of natural running, but it is not recommended for beginners and those with a few extra pounds.


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